Javier Leiva

Growing by Learning and Learning by Doing

The First D in the ADDIE Framework: Design

ADDIE is an instructional design framework that stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. I am going to focus on D (Design).

Note: this is a summary of the MLA course Guide to Instructional Design Basics.

When designing any learning experience, we need to identify the learning outcomes first. They should be measurable, so we can later determine if the instruction was adequate. We must design the learning experience to meet these outcomes.

To create learning outcomes, there is available the Bloom’s taxonomy:


  • By the end of the session, students will be able to use operators and filters to refine database searches (apply)
  • By the end of the session, students will be able to design a program that allows the robot to escape a maze (create)

Once you have identified the outcomes, the orientation session can be designed using Gagne’s 9 events.

  1. Gain the attention of the students
  2. Inform learners of the objectives (learning outcomes)
  3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
  4. Present the content
  5. Provide learning guidance
  6. Elicit performance (practice)
  7. Provide feedback
  8. Assess performance
  9. Enhance retention and transfer

Besides preparing a slide-based presentation or other informative, engaging material for the session (4, Present the content), it’s often a good idea to also work on a handout that can help with retention and transfer (9). After the session, evaluation is critical to design more effective learning programs in the future.

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